The history of the emergence of surrealism and its meaning, the characteristics of surrealism, its pioneers and conditions

 The history of the emergence of surrealism and its meaning, the characteristics of surrealism, its pioneers and conditions

Definition of surrealism:

Surrealism is an artistic movement born at the beginning of the 20th century. Its name comes from the French word surrealist which means “suprarealist or beyond realism”. The surrealists wanted to express the true meaning of things, ideas and human relationships while ignoring reality and rational thought. Using certain techniques such as spontaneous drawing, wearing masks, and dream states, the surrealists created works that almost looked like ordinary images but were strangely twisted.

The term surrealism was first coined by Guillaume Apollinaire when he used the word in 1909 in his poem "Zone". Surrealism has since become an art form that references dreams, irrationality and the mystical elements of the imagination. Surrealism is the most important artistic movement of the last century and surrealism explores the juxtaposition of reality and surrealism. Artists who use this type of imagery are considered surrealist artists.

The beginning of surrealism:

Surrealism is a cultural movement derived from German Expressionism. Also known as “weird art”. The Surrealists focused on the psychological activity of the mind and subconscious, which is why their paintings are full of dreams, illusions and irrational juxtapositions. Surrealism influenced theater, the performing arts and especially cinema.

Guillaume Apollinaire coined the term surrealism and has its origins in the application of dream techniques and the exploration of the subconscious. He left a lasting impact on the 20th century art scene and his influence continues to be felt today. The movement began in Europe around 1917 after World War I and produced unique works of art, combining elements of Cubism, Dada and Expressionism with Freudian symbolism. It began as an underground movement, but gained popularity when artists such as Salvador Dali, Max Ernst, and René Magritte made their works available to the public. Subsequently, many works were produced that expanded modern mythology, fairy tales, and folklore.

The Surrealist movement was a cultural movement that developed and flourished in Europe until World War II. Surrealism developed from a combination of factors: the psychological effects of World War I, which destroyed leaders, belief systems, and institutions that previously seemed unquestionable; the political and social upheavals of the Great Depression; the emergence of new technologies such as radio, cinema and photography, as well as mass-produced books that captured readers' imaginations.

Pioneers of surrealism:

The painter Salvador Dali, considered the leader of the surrealist movement, combined elements of surprise and confusion in his art. Other notable surrealists include René Magritte, Ralph Munch, Max Ernst and Joan Miró. They were all influenced by Sigmund Freud's theory that dreams reveal a person's true desires. These artists created images that indirectly revealed ideas. Surrealist artists were an influential group of European visual artists who revolutionized the art world.

Surrealism developed from Dada, a cultural movement of Europeans who protested World War I. The Dadaists did not believe in the dominant culture and believed in incorporating elements of irrational thinking and dreaming into their artistic works. They are also called surrealists who consider the subconscious as a source of artistic inspiration.

Characteristics of surrealism:

Surrealism, based on psychological theory, is a type of abstract art that uses fantastical images to represent hidden feelings and ideas. It is common in surrealist paintings for objects to be in irrational places and shapes. This is where Dali, one of the main founders of the surrealist movement, comes in with his painting "Persistence", painted in 1931. His paintings place objects and people in crazy places, like a slice of cheese hanging from a lamp. Another, or an elephant in an umbrella, are all common within the Surrealist movement.

The movement was a rebellion against tradition. Artists began to experiment with new ways of creating their art. They achieved this by questioning then-current beliefs, by mixing new technologies with existing and sometimes improbable things. The aim was to contribute to the feeling that something extraordinary had happened in the viewer's mind.

Surrealism was the most important and influential international artistic movement of the 1920s. It was an attempt to reshape the mind, to transform the world of appearances by disorienting all the senses. To achieve this goal, artists had to acquire what was considered a superhuman discipline because they had to shed habits, preconceptions, beliefs, superstitions and habits of thought passed down from generation to generation.

To fully appreciate a painting by a surrealist, you must try to immerse yourself in the story behind it, or even have the story explained to you directly.

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