Stucco decoration in Islamic architecture, characteristics and types of stucco decoration in Islamic architecture

 Stucco decoration in Islamic architecture, characteristics and types of stucco decoration in Islamic architecture

Plaster decoration in Islamic architecture:

Stucco is a decorative technique used in architecture, painting and sculpture. It involves applying stucco or other building materials to a surface, usually walls or ceilings. Grout can be found as a component of poured concrete (set cement) or adobe (a type of clay). In Islamic architecture, stucco is often used as an element of decoration and decoration. In Islamic architecture, stucco decoration has been used for centuries to create patterns on walls. Patterns can be geometric or abstract, depending on the preferences of the artist and the style of architecture in which they are used.

Stucco decoration is the beauty of Islamic architecture. In fact, it is the most widely used material for decorating mosques and other Islamic facilities. The plaster used for these purposes is made of lime and sand. Lime is applied to the walls and left to dry before being sanded. Stucco decorations are very intricate and beautiful, ranging from geometric patterns to painterly images.

Plaster is made from a mixture of lime or gypsum (calcium sulfate), sand, water, and other materials such as animal hair, plant fibers, or ground brick wool , which are mixed together to form a cement-like paste. The mixture is then applied to the surface with brushes, pads or rollers before drying for about two weeks at room temperature so that it hardens into a solid mass which can be decorated as desired by applying further layers until until it is complete enough to hold. Against natural abrasion caused by walking or even the passage of vehicles!

Characteristics of stucco decoration in Islamic architecture:

Stucco decoration in Islamic architecture is a very interesting and complex topic. It is one of the most popular decorative styles in traditional Islamic architecture and has been used since the beginning of Islam. Although there are many different methods of stucco decoration, they all follow the same basic principles:

The first step is to make sure the walls are smooth and solid. Then a mixture of lime and sand is applied to form a mortar which sets and turns into a gypsum paste. This gypsum putty can then be applied to any smooth surface, including concrete or stone. Stucco is usually applied in two coats: one thick enough to be durable but thin enough to let air through; And another layer thinner than this but thicker than the previous layer (this allows for better ventilation). When applying the plaster, it is important not to press too hard or use too much force as this will cause cracks or bubbles in the wall.

Early forms of plaster were made of clay mixed with straw and applied to the wall by pouring it into moulds, which were then filled with water. This method was labor intensive and time consuming, so it was rarely used until modern times, when more efficient methods were developed. In addition to being decorative, stucco can also be used as a protective covering on walls or ceilings, especially if they are exposed to humidity or moisture (such as in kitchens).

Types of stucco decoration in Islamic architecture:

The techniques used by artists to decorate buildings with stucco are completely different from those used by Western artists. Unlike Western techniques that use smooth or flat surfaces to create patterns on walls or ceilings, Islamic artists use high relief, which gives their work more depth and realism.

There are four types of stucco decoration that can be found in Islamic architecture. they:

  •    Stucco Relief: This is the most common form of stucco decoration, consisting of patterns or figures carved on a flat surface. Patterns can feature animals, people, or geometric shapes.
  •    Dark (or "cold") paint: This type of plaster is made from a mixture of lime and beeswax, which is applied to the wall with a brush or roller to create an undercoat. Then it is painted with pigments.
  •    Mosaic: Small pieces of colored stone set in plaster or cement mortar, creating shapes on the walls. Stones are generally smaller than tiles, although they can also be larger than tiles and used in larger decorative projects.
  •    Tiling: this type involves forming patterns with small pieces of tile laid on a surface without any grout underneath
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